Private Corporations.

Section 1. Corporations may be formed under general laws, but shall not be created by special act, except for municipal, manufacturing, mining, immigration, industrial, and educational purposes, or for constructing canals, or improving navigable rivers and harbors of this state, and in cases where, in the judgment of the general assembly, the objects of the corporation can not be attained under general laws. All general laws and special acts passed pursuant to this section may be altered, amended, or repealed.

Sec. 2.
All existing charters or grants of special or exclusive privileges, under which a bona fide organization shall not have taken place and business been commenced in good faith, at the time of the ratification of this Constitution, shall thereafter have no validity.

Sec. 3. The general assembly shall not remit the forfeiture of the charter of any corporation now existing, or alter or amend the same, or pass, any general or special law for the benefit of such corporation, other than in execution of a trust created by law or by contract, except upon the condition that such corporation shall thereafter hold its charter subject to the provisions of this Constitution.

Sec. 4. No foreign corporation shall do any business in this state without having at least one known place of business and an authorized agent or agents therein; and such corporation may be sued in any county where it does business by service of process upon an agent anywhere in this state.

Sec. 5.
No corporation shall engage in any business other than that expressly authorized in its charter.

Sec. 6. No corporation shall issue stock or bonds except for money, labor done, or money or property actually received; and all fictitious increase of stock or indebtedness shall be void. The stock and bonded indebtedness of corporations shall not be increased, except in pursuance of general laws, nor without the consent of the persons holding the larger amount in value of stock, first obtained at a meeting to be held after thirty days' notice given in pursuance of law.

Sec. 7. Municipal and other corporations and individuals invested with the privilege of taking private property for public use, shall make just compensation for the property taken, injured, or destroyed by the construction or enlargement of its works, highways, or improvements, which compensation shall be paid before such taking, injury, or destruction. The general assembly is hereby prohibited from depriving any person of an appeal from any preliminary assessment of damages against any such corporations or individuals made by viewers, or otherwise; and the amount of such damages in all cases of appeal shall, on the demand of either party, be determined by a jury according to law.

Sec. 8. Dues from private corporations shall be secured by such means as may be prescribed by law; but in no case shall any stockholder be individually liable otherwise than for the unpaid stock owned by him or her.

Sec. 9. No corporation shall issue preferred stock without the consent of the owners of two-thirds of the stock of said corporation.

Sec. 10. The general assembly shall have the power to alter, revoke, or amend any charter of incorporation now existing, and revocable at the ratification of this Constitution, or any that may hereafter be created, whenever, in their opinion, it may be injurious to the citizens of the state; in such manner, however, that no injustice shall be done to the corporators. No law hereafter enacted shall create, renew, or extend the charter of more than one corporation.

Sec. 11. Any association or corporation organized for the purpose, or any individual, shall have the right to construct and maintain lines of telegraph within this state, and connect the same with other lines; and the general assembly shall, by general law of uniform operation, provide reasonable regulations to give full effect to this section. No telegraph company shall consolidate with or hold a controlling interest in the stock or bonds of any other telegraph company owning a competing line, or acquire, by purchase or otherwise, any other competing line of telegraph.

Sec. 12. All corporations shall have the right to sue, and shall be subject to be sued in all courts, in like cases as natural persons.

Sec. 13. The term "corporation," as used in this article, shall be construed to include all joint stock companies, or any associations having any of the powers or privileges of corporations, not possessed by individuals or partnerships.

Banks and Banking.

Sec. 14. The general assembly shall not have the power to establish or incorporate any bank or banking company, or moneyed institution, for the purpose of issuing bills of credit, or bills payable to order or bearer, except under the conditions prescribed in this Constitution.

Sec. 15. No banks shall be established otherwise than under a general banking law, nor otherwise than upon a specie basis.

Sec. 16. All bills or notes issued as money shall be at all times redeemable in gold or silver, and no law shall be passed sanctioning, directly or indirectly, the suspension by any bank or banking company of specie payment.

Sec. 17. Holders of bank notes, and depositors who have not stipulated for interest, shall, for such notes and deposits, be entitled, in case of insolvency, to the preference of payment over all other creditors.

Sec. 18. Every bank or banking company shall be required to cease all banking operations within twenty years from the time of its organization (unless the general assembly shall extend the time), and promptly thereafter close its business; but shall have corporate capacity to sue and shall be liable to suit, until its affairs and liabilities are fully closed.

Sec. 19. No bank shall receive, directly or indirectly, a greater rate of interest than shall be allowed by law to individuals for lending money.

Sec. 20. The state shall not be a stockholder in any bank, nor shall the credit of the state ever be given or loaned to any banking company, association, or corporation.

Railroads and Canals.

Sec. 21. All railroads and canals shall be public highways, and all railroad and canal companies shall be common carriers. Any association or corporation organized for the purpose shall have the right to construct and operate a railroad between any points in this state, and to connect, at the state line, with railroads of other states. Every railroad company shall have the right with its road to intersect, connect with, or cross any other railroad, and shall receive and transport, each, the other's freight, passengers, and cars, loaded or empty, without delay or discrimination.

Sec. 22. The general assembly shall pass laws to correct abuses and prevent unjust discrimination and extortion in the rates of freights and passenger tariffs on railroads, canals, and rivers in this state.

Sec. 23. No railroad or other transportation company shall grant free passes, or sell tickets or passes at a discount other than as sold to the public generally, to any member of the general assembly, or to any person holding office under this state or the United States.

Sec. 24. No street passenger railway shall be constructed within the limits of any city or town without the consent of its local authorities.

Sec. 25. No railroad, canal, or other transportation company, in existence at the time of the ratification of this Constitution, shall have the benefit of any future legislation by general or special laws, other than in execution of a trust created by law, or by contract, except on the condition of complete acceptance of ail the provisions of this article.